Popularly known as Netaji, Subhas Chandra Bose was a leader of the masses, who believed in taking extreme action against the British rule. He dedicated his life to freeing his motherland from the foreign rule and even gave up his life for accomplishing this mission.
Childhood and education
He was born in Cuttack (Orissa) on 23rd January, 1897. Janaki Nath Bose, his father, was a lawyer while his mother Prabha Devi was a religious woman. Subhas Chandra Bose proved to be a very bright student and earned high grades in his studies. He was a topper in the matriculation examination. He graduated from Scottish Churches College, Calcutta with a first class in Philosophy. In 1919, he left for England for taking the civil services examination. He gained 4th position in the examination in 1920. He began his apprenticeship but left it when the Jallianwalla Bagh massacre occurred. The incident left a deep impact on Netaji. He felt the need to enter the nationalist movement of India. Consequently, in 1921, he returned to his motherland.
His rise to becoming a freedom fighter
At the time, Mahatma Gandhi was working tirelessly towards freeing India and his ideas influenced Subhas Chandra Bose a great deal. He wholeheartedly joined the Indian National Congress. Because of positive qualities, Mahatma Gandhi advised him to work under the guidance of Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das. With his hard work, he soon gained popularity in the Congress and started playing an active role in Congress’s activities.
Contribution towards India’s freedom struggle
Subhas Chandra Bose was a strong-headed personality, who had dreamed of a free India since the time he joined the national freedom movement. That is why on many occasions he opposed the British Acts/policies, which refrained from giving complete independence to India. For instance in 1928, despite being approved by the Motilal Committee, he along with Jawaharlal Lal Nehru opposed the British Act that promised Dominion Status to India.
As he spent more years in the party, he started having difference of opinion with M.K Gandhi. In 1931, he objected to the Gandhi-Irwin Pact and the subsequent termination of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Indian National Army
Subhas Chandra Bose wanted to weaken the British Government politically. Hence, he exposed India’s poor condition abroad and appealed to the German and Japanese governments, who were against the British, to help him raise an army to bring down the British rule in India. He received full cooperation and in 1941 founded the Indian National Army (INA) in Singapore. The INA was comprised of Indians, who had been prisoners of war.
Soon, the Army started moving towards India and it overthrew British rule in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In 1944, the INA headquarters were relocated in Rangoon, Burma. In the same year, on 18th March, the INA reached India.
Although the INA crossed the Indian border, it did not get an opportunity to fight the British. Actually, both Germany and Japan suffered heavy losses in the Second World War. As a result, in 1944, they had to withdraw their support from the INA. A year later on 18th August, 1945, Subhas Chandra Bose died in a plane crash.